• 12 minutes

How to Determine When a Project Is Substantially or Finally Complete


Learn how the AIA General Conditions addresses this determination.

Substantial completion and final completion are terms of art in construction. While they are generally understood, they are the subject of contract and law and must be understood correctly when determining when a project is either substantially or finally completed. This video reviews how to use owner occupancy as a measuring stick and discusses the construction punch list along with AIA general conditions and commentary, and warranty commencement.

Runtime: 11 minutes



Robert G. Campbell

Robert G. Campbell

Cox, Castle & Nicholson LLP

  • Partner in the Century City office of the California law firm Cox, Castle & Nicholson LLP
  • Has practiced construction law for 41 years and has tried and arbitrated numerous construction disputes to judgments
  • Clients are project owners, prime contractors, design professionals, construction managers, construction lenders, subcontractors, and other project participants in disputes ranging broadly in size and sophistication on both public and private works
  • Among the claims categories he resolves are scope of work disputes, design professional liability, delay, disruption, productivity, mechanic’s lien and bond enforcement, disputed change orders, defective work, terminations, differing site conditions, licensing, and bid protests
  • Recognized as a leading construction lawyer: Who’s Who Legal: Construction, 2017-2023; Southern California Super Lawyers, 2012-2023; and recommended attorney, real estate - construction, Legal 500 USA, 2017-2023
  • J.D. degree, University of Southern California; B.A. degree, University of California, Los Angeles
  • Can be contacted at [email protected] or 310-284-2259
Bryan Forbes

Bryan Forbes

Primus Consultants

  • President of Primus Consultants and an experienced claim analyst and expert witness in the construction field
  • Industry experience includes heavy civil works construction projects, commercial projects, and residential; this extensive hands-on field experience provides the foundation of his ability as a claim analyst and expert witness
  • Has testified more than 60 times as an expert witness on a variety of project types, including transportation, mass excavation, commercial structures, infrastructure, and residential buildings
  • Participated in numerous negotiation sessions between owners and contractors, as well as between contractors and subcontractors
  • As a testimonial expert, he has developed exceptional presentation skills that allow for concise and clear delivery of opinions and findings in all venue types
  • B.S. degree in civil engineering, University of California, Irvine

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