Managing Construction Projects: Deliverables for Design Phases

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July 13, 2018


I. Schematic Design

The primary objective for this phase is to arrive at a clearly defined, feasible concept and to present it in a form that achieves client understanding and acceptance. The secondary objectives are to clarify the project program, explore the most promising alternative design solutions, and provide a reasonable basis for analyzing the cost of the project.

Typical documentation at the end of this phase includes:

_ Site plan: Schematic grading, utility, planting and paving plans

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_ Floor plans for all levels: Layout of key areas; location and sizing of exits and other circulation areas; basic elevator concepts

_ Building elevations: Schematic elevations fenestration; and preliminary selection of exterior wall materials

_ Key sections

_ Structural: Basis of design; foundation system selection; structural system selection; preliminary framing plans

_ Mechanical: Basis of design; preliminary mechanical systems selection; refinement of service, distribution concepts; input to plans, sections and elevations

_ Electrical: Basis of design; space allocation for electrical systems; selection of lighting and electrical systems; service, power, and distribution concepts; input to plans, sections and elevations

_ Preliminary estimate of construction cost based on current area, volume, or other unit costs

II. Design Development

The design development phase consists of continued development and expansion of the schematic design documents to establish the final scope, relationships, forms, size and appearance of the project. The primary purpose of design development is to further define and describe all important aspects of the project so that what remains is the formal documentation step of the construction contract documents.

This typically includes fully developed floor plans, sections, exterior elevations, interior elevations, reflected ceiling plans, wall sections, and key details. The basic civil, structural, mechanical, electrical, plumbing and fire protection systems should be accurately defined if not fully drawn. No major issues that could cause significant restudy during the construction documents phase should be left unresolved.

The deliverables of the design development phase are similar to those of schematic design. Drawings and specifications that fix and describe the size and character of the project may include:

A. Architectural

1. Site Plan

_ Show features of the site that are of architectural importance

_ Finished floor elevations of the ground level

_ Parking and paving layouts

_ Accessible route from publicway

2. Floor Plans

_ Building floor plans with structural grid system

_ Exterior walls and interior partitions of appropriate thickness indicated

_ Major mechanical/ electrical systems determined and their requirements reflected and indicated

_ Adequate internal and external dimensions for “hard fix”

_ Floor, slab, and level elevations

_ Well worked out building core elements with dimensions including elevators, stairs and major shafts

_ Reference to major partition types

_ Built-in furniture items, such as, reception desk, counters, cabinets, work tops, lockers, etc. – indication only

3. Enlarged Plans

_ Larger scale of key areas including, entries, lobby, public plaza, major corridors, unit plans, toilet rooms, kitchens, and other special spaces

_ Floor, wall, and ceiling treatments, furniture indication and layout

4. Building Elevations

_ Total full-height facades including roof structures

_ All windows and storefronts

_ Overall vertical building and floor heights indicated and related to established building datum

_ Indicate structural grid lines

_ Indicate cross-reference points with sections

_ Indicate setbacks, building profiles, expansion and control joints, etc.

_ Indicate treatment of visible mechanical equipment (as worked out with consultants)

_ Indicate building materials

5. Enlarged Elevations
Key elevations that indicate unique or theme elements as required to augment the normal building elevations:

_ Building entries

_ Public spaces

_ Typical bay

_ Canopy recesses

_ Fenestration pattern and venting arrangements

_ Metal and panel work – division and profile indication

_ Special exterior treatments

_ Exterior louver placements


6. Building Sections

_ Overall building longitudinal and cross sections

_ Larger scale sections to show design profile of the building when required

_ All building sections keyed to floor plans


7. Wall Sections

_ Foundation and perimeter treatment

_ Typical wall construction

_ Window location and insulation methods

_ Floor and exterior wall connections

_ Roof and exterior wall connections

_ Parapet and flashing design

_ All sections keyed to building elevations and/or sections

8. Reflected Ceiling Plans

Indicate reflected ceiling plans for typical and special spaces. Integrated plans reflecting structural, mechanical, and electrical impacts:

_ Ceiling heights

_ Soffits, coves, furring

_ Ceiling materials

_ Lighting layouts

_ Air devices

9. Interior Elevations

Typical and special spaces – interfaced with and cross referenced to floor and reflected ceiling plans:

_ Finish floor elevations

_ Suspended ceiling lines reflecting structural and mechanical conditions

_ Interior wall treatments and materials

_ Level changes

_ Pertinent vertical dimensions

10. Schedules

_ Initial door schedule

_ Initial window schedule

_ Initial finish schedule

11. Details

_ Key exterior wall details

_ Key window and storefront type details

_ Key partition type details

_ Key roof details

12. Outline Specifications

13. Preliminary Estimate of Construction Cost

Adjustments to the preliminary estimate of construction cost

B. Structural

Continued development and expansion of schematic design documents and specific structural systems in sufficient details to establish:

_ Foundation plans

_ Foundation details and schedules

_ Retaining wall plans, sections and details

_ Floor framing plans

_ Roof framing plans

_ Sizing of major structural components

_ Column schedule

_ Representative framing details

C. Mechanical

Continued development and expansion of mechanical schematic design documents and development of equipment schedules and outline specifications to establish:

_ Equipment schedules

_ Mechanical site plan

_ Mechanical plans – all levels

_ Piping plans – all levels

_ Riser diagrams

_ Enlarged mechanical plans – unit plans where applicable

_ Enlarged mechanical plans – boiler / chiller plants

D. Plumbing

Continued development and expansion of plumbing schematic design documents and development of equipment schedules and specifications to establish:

_ Plumbing equipment and fixture schedules

_ Plumbing site plan

_ Plumbing plans – all levels

_ Enlarged plumbing plans – unit plans where applicable

_ Plumbing riser diagrams

_ Enlarged pump room plans

_ Fire protection plans

E. Electrical

Continued development and expansion of electrical schematic design documents and development of equipment schedules and outline specifications to establish:

_ Luminaire schedule

_ Lighting plans – all levels

_ Power plans – all levels

_ Normal power electrical one line diagram

_ Emergency power electrical one line diagram

_ Fire alarm one line diagram

_ Equipment schedule

F. Civil

Continued development and expansion of civil schematic design documents and development of outline specifications to establish the final scope and preliminary details for on-site and off-site civil engineering work:

_ Demolition plan

_ Horizontal control plan

_ Site layout plan

_ Grading and erosion control plan

_ Drainage plan

_ Utility plan

_ Preliminary site sections

G. Landscape

Continued development and expansion of landscape schematic design documents and development of outline specifications to establish the final scope and preliminary details for landscape work:

_ Site planting plans

_ Preliminary irrigation plans

_ Typical planting details

_ Preliminary hardscape plans – if not done by the architect

H. Other Consultants’ Design Development Sets as Required

III. Construction Documents

The construction documents establish the contractual obligations between the owner and contractor, and lay out the responsibilities of the architect and the design team for the project. They communicate the quantities, qualities, and configuration of the work required to construct the project. The contractor uses the documents to solicit bids or quotations from subcontractors and suppliers. The level of detail provided in the drawings and specifications responds to the needs of the project and of those who will own, regulate, and – most important, build it. The documents need to be comprehensive, detailed, and coordinated. Any unclear or incomplete items will have to be negotiated as contract modifications with contractors who are, at the time of bidding, unknown. The construction drawings show, in graphic and quantitative form, the extent, configuration, location, relationships, and dimensions of the work to be done. They generally consist of site and building plans, elevations, sections, details, diagrams, and schedules. The specifications present written requirements for materials, equipment, and construction systems as well as standards for products, workmanship, and the construction services required to produce the work.

A. Architectural

1. Site Plan

_ Layout the property lines and any elements that are off but directly adjacent to the site, such as streets, sidewalk, lighting, etc.

_ Limits of the work if only a portion of the site is to be improved.

_ All setback lines and easements – if not shown by civil.

_ Building footprint on site plan, not roof plan. Show north arrow.

_ Major structural grid lines for reference.

_ Parking lots, driveways, sidewalks and other paved areas. Show control and expansion joints in paving.

_ Indicate accessible route and coordinate with civil for grading information to comply with ADA / UFAS requirements.

_ Provide separate hardscape plans if intricate paving patterns exist – depending on consultants’ agreement, this could be done by the landscape architect.

_ Drainage patterns where not covered by civil.

_ Locate screen walls, retaining walls, fences and gates.

_ Provide demolition plans to show all structures and facilities that are to be demolished where applicable.

_ Show datum elevations at building entrances and periodically at sidewalks and curbs. Indicate finished floor elevation for the first floor (ground floor) and relate to datum elevation.

_ Miscellaneous architectural items, such as flag poles, signs, guardhouses, bicycle racks, etc.

_ Show planting areas and refer to landscape architect drawings.

_ Layout pools, spas, fountains and refer to water feature drawings

_ Dimension property lines, buildings, parking lots, sidewalks, screen walls, retaining walls, and fences. Coordinate with civil for this work.

2. Floor Plans

_ Show structural grid lines on all floor plans.

_ Use symbols for concrete, masonry or stud walls.

_ Windows, storefronts, borrow lights, and other openings.

_ Stairs and handrails – show direction of travel.

_ Countertops, shelves, built-in casework, vanities and partial height partitions.

_ Plumbing fixtures, drinking fountains

_ Fire extinguishers/cabinets, wet and/or dry standpipes where applicable.

_ Changes in floor materials, floor patterns, changes in floor elevations, floor recesses, ramps, curbs, and floor drains.

_ Line of roof overhang – for floor immediately below roof only.

_ Room names, room numbers, door numbers, window types, and partition types – depending on the scale of the floor plans, some of these could be shown on enlarged plans.

_ Cross-referencing symbols, including section marks for building sections, wall sections, larger scale plans, plan details, and interior elevations.

_ Keyed notations and general notes.

_ Provide dimensions for all partitions and interior features with reference to grid lines.

3. Roof Plans

_ Show structural grid lines on roof plans.

_ Roof and overflow drains and/or roof scuppers.

_ Gutters and downspouts.

_ Indicate roofing materials and systems.

_ Slopes of the roof with spot elevations to show high and low points of roof.

_ Show elevator penthouse, roof hatch, mechanical equipment, curbs for mechanical equipment, skylights, equipment screens, shafts and vents through roof.

_ Cross-referencing for building sections, wall sections, and roof details.

_ Keyed notations and general notes.

_ Provide dimensions to fix rooftop elements.

4. Reflected Ceiling Plans

_ Show structural grid lines on reflected ceiling plans.

_ Use legend and/or notes for finish ceiling materials.

_ Note all of the different ceiling and soffit heights.

_ Light fixtures, speakers, smoke detectors, air devices – coordinate with electrical and

mechanical consultants.

_ Access panels for plumbing, air-conditioning, fire sprinkler controls, etc.

_ Roof hatches

_ Control joints in gypsum board ceilings

_ Cross-referencing for ceiling, soffit, and light cove details.

_ Dimensions for locations of air devices and light fixtures.

_ Locations of sprinkler heads if critical to project.

5. Building Elevations

_ Show structural grid lines on building elevations.

_ Glazed and unglazed openings, including windows, doors, louvers, skylights, barrel vaults, ridged vaults, domed roof, colonnades, arcades, etc.

_ Enlarged building elevations for major building elements – typical bays, building entrances, public spaces, etc.

_ Roof top equipment and/or screen – coordinate with mechanical.

_ Coping, gutters, downspouts, scuppers, etc.

_ Building mounted light fixtures – coordinate with electrical.

_ Elements that allow for structural movement, such as expansion, seismic, and control joints, and reveals.

_ Vertical dimensions – elevations for grade, floor lines, roof lines, parapets, top of walls, top of windows, top of arches, etc.

_ Material indications – poche materials and/or note references.

_ Cross-reference marks for building sections, wall sections, and details

_ Key notes for each material or item at least once on each building elevation.

6. Building Sections

_ Show structural grid lines on building sections.

_ Show grades at exterior of building, foundations, floors, walls, ceilings, roofs, parapets, penthouses, balconies, ramps, and stairs.

_ Interior partitions and room names – major spaces only.

_ Vertical dimensions – elevations for grade, floor lines, roof lines, parapets, top of walls, top of windows, top of arches, etc.

_ Cross-reference marks for wall sections and details.

_ Material indications – key notes.

7. Wall Sections

_ Show structural grid lines on wall sections.

_ Conditions at a building’s exterior wall that is different from any other conditions should be shown.

_ Show structural floor and wall conditions with architectural features and finishes.

_ Show structural roof and wall conditions with architectural features and roofing conditions.

_ Conditions at window heads and sills.

_ Cross reference to wall details.

_ Vertical dimensions – elevations for grade, floor lines, roof lines, and parapets.

_ Material indications – key notes

8. Enlarged Plans

_ Show structural grid lines on enlarged plans.

_ Show information that is in need of more detail than is shown on small scale plans (1/8” scale).

_ Window mullions should be accurately spaced and drawn to scale.

_ Plumbing fixtures, such as water closets, lavatories, bathtubs, urinals, and sinks should be dimensioned to comply with ADA/UFAS.

_ Floor drains – coordinate with plumbing drawings

_ Room names, room numbers, door numbers, window types, and partitions types – if not already shown on small scale drawings.

_ Cross-reference to interior elevations.

_ Floor covering material indications – show floor finish patterns.

_ Keyed notations and general notes.

_ Provide dimensions for all partitions and interior features with reference to grid lines.

9. Interior Elevations

_ Interior elevations for all walls not clearly understandable from plan information.

_ Show structural grid lines on interior elevations.

_ Finish materials for all interior walls.

_ Special tile patterns or paneling patterns.

_ Doors and windows.

_ Wall mounted electrical fixtures and outlets.

_ Mechanical diffusers and louvers.

_ Casework and furnishings that are in the contract.

_ Plumbing fixtures and bathroom accessories.

_ Ceiling height changes and soffits viewed in elevation.

_ Cross reference to millwork/casework details.

_ Dimension wall mounted items.

10. Vertical Circulation

_ Enlarged plans for stairs, ramps, elevators, escalators, trash and linen chutes.

_ Enlarged sections for stairs, elevators, escalators, trash and linen chutes, including venting systems for code compliance.

_ Finished floor elevations and structural grid lines for all plans and sections.

_ Partition types and door types for code compliance

_ Stair tread and riser details

_ Detail guardrails and handrails.

_ Detail elevator sill, head, jamb, and special elevator cab features.

_ Ladders and ramp details

_ Linen and trash chute details

_ Cross reference among plans, sections, and details.

11. Schedules

_ Include door schedule, window and louver types schedule, room finish schedule, and partition types schedule.

_ Door schedule should include information for door number, room name, door type, door size, door thickness, door material and finish, frame type, frame material and finish, detail references for head, jamb and threshold, fire rating, hardware group number, and remarks.

_ Include hardware groups in the project specifications – cross reference to the door schedule.

_ Door head, jamb and threshold details – cross reference to door schedule.

_ Window schedule should include information for window mark, room number, window type – which shown as elevations, opening size, thickness, material and finish, glazing type, sill or head height from finish floor, and remarks.

_ Window head, jamb, and sill details – cross reference to window schedule.

_ Room finish schedule should include information for room number, room name, floor material and finish, base material and finish, wall and/or wainscot material and finish, ceiling material and finish, ceiling height, and remarks.

_ Material code schedule – cross reference to the room finish schedule.

_ Louver schedule should include information for louver mark, room number, louver type which shown as elevations, opening size, thickness, material and finish, sill or head height, filters/ screen, and remarks.

_ Louver head, jamb, and sill details – cross reference to louver schedule.

_ Partition type schedule should include all walls and partitions used for the project. They are generally grouped together as nonrated, 1-hour rated, 2-hour rated, 3-hour rated or 4-hour rated partition types with various variations.

_ All fire rated partition types should be provided with fire testing references, such as UL design numbers or Gypsum Association’s design numbers.

_ All partition types require to be sound rated should be provided with sound testing references, such as Gypsum Association’s design numbers – most UL design numbers have no sound test rating.

_ Key partition types to floor plans and/or enlarged floor plans for cross reference.

12. Details

_ Exterior wall details

_ Curtain wall, window wall, storefront and entrances

_ Louvers and screens

_ Expansion joints and control joints

_ Below grade waterproofing and drainage

_ Roof details – roofing, flashing, insulation, roof and overflow drains, scuppers, equipment supports, and pipe penetrations

_ Roof hatches, skylights

_ Exterior flooring & paving with waterproofing and deck drains

_ Planters and fountains - not covered by landscape and water feature

_ Fire assemblies

_ Wall intersections

_ Column enclosures

_ Stair, ramp, ladder

_ Guardrail and handrail

_ Standpipes, fire hose and fire extinguisher cabinets

_ Trash and linen chutes

_ Ceiling, soffit, scuttles and related details

_ Applied wall finish, trims, molding

_ Millwork and casework

_ Accessibility related details – ADA / UFAS

_ Signs and graphics

_ Acoustical treatments, special wall finishes

13. Project Manual

_ Bidding requirements

_ Contract forms

_ Contract conditions

_ Technical specifications – Divisions 1 through 16

14. Cost Estimate

_ Final estimate of probable construction cost

B. Structural

_ General and structural notes

_ General structural details

_ Retaining wall plans, elevations, sections, and details

_ Foundation plans

_ Foundation details and schedules

_ Floor framing plans – all levels

_ Roof framing plans

_ Truss elevations where applicable

_ Shear wall plans and elevations

_ Precast framing plans where applicable

_ Column schedules and details

_ Beam schedules and details

_ Concrete framing details

_ Post tensioning notes and slab details if applicable

_ Steel framing details

_ Structural sections and details

_ Stair plans and details

C. Mechanical

_ Legend and general notes

_ Mechanical schedules

_ Mechanical site plan

_ Mechanical plans – all levels

_ Piping plans – all levels

_ Stair and corridor pressurization mechanical plans if applicable

_ Hoistway pressurization if applicable

_ Heating and air conditioning riser diagrams

_ Exhaust riser diagrams

_ Outside air riser diagrams

_ Enlarged mechanical plans – unit plans, coordinate with architectural

_ Mechanical equipment plant room

_ Mechanical details

D. Plumbing

_ Legend and general notes

_ Plumbing equipment and fixture schedules

_ Plumbing plans – all levels

_ Water distribution diagrams

_ Sanitary risers diagrams

_ Storm drain collection – coordinate with architectural and civil

_ Gas piping riser diagrams

_ Enlarged plumbing plans – unit plans, coordinate with architectural

_ Enlarged pump room plans

_ Plumbing details

_ Fire protection notes

_ Fire protection site plan

_ Fire protection plans – all levels

_ Enlarged fire protection plans – unit plans, coordinate with architectural

_ Fire pump room plan and diagram

_ Fire protection details

E. Electrical

_ Legend and general notes

_ Electrical site plan

_ Lighting plans – all levels

_ Power plans – all levels

_ Enlarged electrical plans – unit plans, coordinate with architectural

_ Enlarged electrical room plans

_ Single line diagram

_ Electrical riser diagrams

_ Telecommunications riser diagrams

_ Fire alarm riser diagrams

_ Security system riser diagram

_ Emergency power electrical one line diagram

_ Equipment and schedules

_ Luminaire schedule

_ Panel schedules

_ Electrical details

F. Civil

_ Vicinity and location maps, general notes and abbreviations

_ Existing conditions

_ Erosion control plan

_ Site layout and horizontal control plans

_ Grading and drainage plans – coordinate with architectural and plumbing

_ Indicate accessible route and verify grading for compliance with ADA / FHA

_ Utility plans

_ Fire department connections

_ Drainage details

_ Sewer details

_ Water details

_ Paving and striping plans and details

_ Road profiles

_ Drain line profiles

_ Sewer line profiles

_ Water line profiles

_ Site sections

_ Miscellaneous details

_ Traffic control/ phasing – where applicable

G. Landscape

_ Deposition site plan

_ Landscape site plan

_ Landscape planting plans

_ Plant list and notes

_ Landscape details

_ Site irrigation plan

_ Irrigation plans

_ Irrigation legend and notes

_ Irrigation details

_ Hardscape plans and details if not done by architect

_ Rock work plans and details if applicable

H. Water Feature

_ General notes and specifications

_ Overall water feature site plan

_ Swimming pool plan

_ Other water feature plans as applicable (spa, waterfall, fountain, etc.)

_ Swimming pool piping plan

_ Other water feature piping plan as applicable

_ Water feature sections

_ Equipment room layout and system description

_ Water feature details


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